Opinion leaders in technology and politics study findings and laws in possible choices to animal testing!
Refine, lessen, substitute - those are the 3 calls for that scientists have put upon themselves of their look for choices to animal trying out. certainly a lot interdisciplinary study is being carried on this day, and new fields have emerged, comparable to in-vitro toxicology.
the 3 R's demand new medical insights. in addition, validation and popularity recommendations need to be tailored, a strategy of a lot ongoing curiosity and very important situation to the pharmaceutical and beauty industries.
Researchers want to know precisely what has been completed and authorized in possible choices to animal trying out in technological know-how and politics. during this booklet they've got the chance to learn from the data and services of top researchers and influential representatives of nationwide and foreign regulatory specialists.
Chapter 1 in retrospect 33 Years to Russell and Burch: the advance of the concept that of the 3 Rs (Alternatives) (pages 1–11): Andrew N. Rowan
Chapter 2 The OECD and overseas Regulatory recognition of the 3 Rs (pages 13–19): Hugo M. Van Looy and Herman B. W. M. Koeter
Chapter three the eu Centre for the Validation of different tools (ECVAM) (pages 21–25): Erminio Marafante and Michael Balls
Chapter four A Timetable for exchanging, decreasing and Refining Animal use with assistance from in Vitro exams: The Limulus Amebocyte Lysate attempt (LAL) to illustrate (pages 27–43): Oliver Flint
Chapter five The Fund for the alternative of Animals in scientific Experiments (FRAME): 23 Years of Campaigning for the 3 Rs (pages 45–55): Michael Balls and Julia H. Fentem
Chapter 6 Animal Use and possible choices: advancements within the Netherlands (pages 57–65): L. F. M. van Zutphen
Chapter 7 The RIVM heart for choices to Animal trying out and the idea that of the 3 Rs within the qc of Vaccines (pages 67–74): Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen
Chapter eight ZEBET: 3 Years of the nationwide German heart for Documentation and review of possible choices to Animal Experiments on the Federal healthiness place of work (BGA) in Berlin (pages 75–84): Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune?Wolff and Manfred Liebsch
Chapter nine Reviewed Literature Databank for choices to Animal Experiments – “Gelbe Liste” (pages 85–88): Brigitte Rusche and Ursula G. Sauer
Chapter 10 The SIAT learn, educating and Consulting software within the zone of in Vitro Toxicology. Experimental study, Screening and Validation (pages 89–98): Christoph A. Reinhardt
Chapter eleven Computer?Aided Drug layout and the 3 Rs (pages 99–106): Angelo Vedani
Chapter 12 Computer?Aided courses in Biomedical schooling (pages 107–117): Richard T. Fosse
Chapter thirteen choices to Experiments with Animals in clinical schooling: A TEMPUS Joint ecu venture (pages 119–123): Miroslav Cervinka, Zuzana Cervinkova, Michael Balls and Horst Spielmann
Chapter 14 substitute of Laboratory Animals within the administration of Blood?Sucking Arthropods (pages 125–129): Achim E. Issmer, Thomas H. Schilling, Andreas Vollmer and Jorg Grunewald
Chapter 15 upkeep of Filarial Cycles within the Laboratory: methods to exchanging the Vertebrate Host (pages 131–139): Joachim Rapp, Wolfgang H. Hoffmann, Lisette Keller, Andrea Welzel and Hartwig Schulz?Key
Chapter sixteen enhanced Drug Metabolizing means of Hepatocytes Co?Cultured with Epithelial Cells and Maintained in a Perifusion method (pages 141–146): Rolf Gebhardt
Chapter 17 Characterization and Use of Long?Term Liver Cultures to guage the Toxicity of Cyclophosphamide or Benzene to Bone Marrow Cultures (pages 147–157): Brian A. Naughton, Benson Sibanda, Julia San Roman and Gail ok. Naughton
Chapter 18 eu Interlaboratory evaluate of an in Vitro Ocular inflammation version (Skin2TM version ZK1100) utilizing 18 chemical compounds and Formulated items (pages 159–164): Peter W. Joller, Alain Coquette, Jos Noben, Raffaella Pirovano, Jacqueline A. Southee and Pamela okay. Logemann
Chapter 19 mobile Assays for checking out Peritoneal Dialysis luggage (pages 165–171): Mary Dawson and Zara Jabar
Chapter 20 the location of the gurus (pages 173–176): Lavinia Pioda
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Additional info for Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. (198 lb) Decision ofthe Council qf 12th M a y 1981 Concerning the Mutual Acceptance of Data in the Assessment of Chemicals (C(8 1)30(Final)). OECD Publications Office, Paris. vandenHeuve1 M. J. and Fielder R. J. (1990) Acceptance of in vitro testing by regulatory authorities. Toxicology in Vitro 4, 675-679. Alternatives to Animal Testing Edited by Christoph A. Reinhardt Copyright 0VCH VerlagsgesellschaftmbH 1994 3 The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) Erminio Marafante and Michael Balls Summary At the end of 1991, the Commission of the European Communities informed the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament of its decision to set up a European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in line with its responsibilities under Directive 86/609/EEC.
Alternatives to Animal Testing Edited by Christoph A. Reinhardt Copyright 0VCH VerlagsgesellschaftmbH 1994 3 The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) Erminio Marafante and Michael Balls Summary At the end of 1991, the Commission of the European Communities informed the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament of its decision to set up a European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in line with its responsibilities under Directive 86/609/EEC.
28 0. Flint Abbreviations. DIC = disseminated intravascular coagulation; IL- 1 = interleukin- 1; LAL = Limulus amebocyte lysate, TNF = tumor necrosis factor. 1 Introduction Many new techniques of in vitro testing for toxic hazard have been described in recent years and some have made the transition from the developer’s laboratory to application in the pharmaceutical or consumer products industry (Flint, 1990a; Flint and Boyle, 1990). , 1990; Flint 1990b; Flint, 1991). Validation involves demonstrating an acceptable degree of correspondance between the interpretation of the in vitro test and in vivo test results that best characterize potential human toxicity.
Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition