New PDF release: Advanced techniques for clay mineral analysis: invited

By J. J. (edited by) Fripiat

ISBN-10: 0444420029

ISBN-13: 9780444420022

Invited Contributions from the Symposium held through the seventh overseas Clay convention, Bologna and Pavia, Italy, 6-12 Sept. 1981

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Additional resources for Advanced techniques for clay mineral analysis: invited contributions from the symposium held at the 7th International Clay Conference, September 6-12, 1981, Bologna and Pavia, Italy

Example text

B) O b j e c t wave. t; t h e second i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n t h i n c r y s - eddect and a p h a c + t a l l i n e o b j e c t s w i t h o u t heavy atoms. A t a PO n t r ( x y ) in t h e e x i t p l a n e t h e -t e f f e c t can be r e p r e s e n t e d by a Rhanbpahency ~ u n c t i a na ( r ) {l-s(G)}exp i$(G) + + where s ( r ) i s t h e a b s o r p t i o n o r a m p l i t u d e component, @ ( r ) t h e phase component. o(;) = I f t h e emergent w a v e - f u n c t i o n f(;) i s r e f e r e d t o an u n i t y i n c i d e n t a m p l i t u d e + - f w h i c h i s modulated by t h e above t r a n s p a r e n c y f u n c t i o n , i t w r i t e s s i m p l y f ( r ) = o ( r ) .

Wave v e c t o r s a r e n o t e d ko ( i n c i d e n t ) and k ( s c a t t e r e d ) , w i t h k - ko = 1 / X . 2 Wave t r a n s m i s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e microscope. I n an i d e a l i z e d imaging p r o c e s s , t h e c o h e r e n t e l e c t r o n - w a v e s t r a n s m i t t e d and s c a t t e r e d f r o m a p o i n t o f t h e o b j e c t a r e focused by t h e o b j e c t i v e and b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g image-plane p o i n t w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e phases.

Recent microscopes a1 low the combined study o f h i g h - r e s o l u t i o n images and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Using t h a t method,a c o r r e l a t i o n o f major and t r a c e element content w i t h c r y s t a l d e f e c t s and stacking sequences has been pointed o u t by Buseck and Veblen (1978). 0 F i g . 2 . 8 . Chlorite structure image with 14 A layer spacing and random stacking. (Amouric et a1 , 1981b). M. c a n be expected i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s . F u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t o f image p r o c e s s i n g c o u l d l e a d t o a b e t t e r mat ching w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n i n g en e r a l cases, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h d i s o r d e r e d s t r u c t u r e s f r e q u e n t l y encountered i n c l a y s .

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Advanced techniques for clay mineral analysis: invited contributions from the symposium held at the 7th International Clay Conference, September 6-12, 1981, Bologna and Pavia, Italy by J. J. (edited by) Fripiat


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