By Toby Seddon
Why are a few psychoactive ingredients considered as ‘dangerous drugs’, to be managed by way of the legal legislation inside of an international prohibition regime, while others – from alcohol and tobacco, via to these we name ‘medicines’ – are visible and controlled very another way? A heritage of gear strains a family tree of the development and governance of the ‘drug challenge’ over the last two hundred years, calling into query probably the most basic principles during this box: from ‘addiction’ to the very proposal of ‘drugs’. on the middle of the ebook is the declare that it used to be with the emergence within the past due eighteenth century of recent liberal capitalism, with its unique emphasis on freedom, that our matters in regards to the intake of a few of those components started to grow. And, certainly, notions of freedom, loose will and accountability stay significant to the drug query at the present time. Pursuing an leading edge inter-disciplinary process, A heritage of substances presents an educated and insightful account of the origins of up to date drug coverage. it will likely be crucial examining for college kids and teachers operating in legislations, criminology, sociology, social coverage, historical past and political technological know-how.
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Extra resources for A History of Drugs: Drugs and Freedom in the Liberal Age
It is part and parcel of the invention or discovery of the liberal subject, Homo economicus, a ‘subject of individual preferences and choices’ (Gordon, 1991: 21). Following our chronological framework, our next concern is what becomes of the notion of the ‘will’ with the transition to welfare liberalism at the end of the nineteenth century. The late Victorian period was one in which some farreaching challenges began to emerge to widely held beliefs about ‘free will’, perhaps most notably from Darwin’s Origin of Species, ﬁrst published in 1859.
3 summarizes these ‘master’ changes in conceptions of ‘addiction’ since its invention in the late eighteenth century. 3 ‘Master’ changes in conceptions of ‘addiction’ in liberal government Phase One: Classical liberalism Phase Two: Welfare liberalism Phase Three: Neo-liberalism 1. Nature of ‘addiction’ Addiction as a disease of the will Addiction as a source of risk 2. Scope and coverage Alcohol and habitual drunkenness 3. Governmental role Limited encouragement of temperance Addiction as a type of ‘defect’ or abnormality of character Extended to non-therapeutic use of opium, opiates and cocaine Normalization Further extended to many other forms of habitual consumption Risk management Freedom–will–addiction In the previous section, and with some difﬁculty, I attempted to keep separate my analysis of these three concepts of freedom, the ‘will’ and addiction.
The main body of this chapter thus considers the 1868 ‘event’ and seeks to identify some of the multiple lines of development from which this new regime of ‘pharmaceutical regulation’ (Berridge, 2005a) emerged. In conclusion, I attempt to pull together the implications of the analysis for my genealogical project and look forward to Chapter 4 which investigates another momentous ‘event’ some ﬁfty years later in the early decades of the twentieth century. The emergence of pharmaceutical regulation I have previously argued that we can best understand the pre-1868 free market in opium and opiates in terms of the dominance of laissez-faire and the ideology of free markets within early liberalism, with opium and opiates treated simply as commodities in the market economy (Seddon, 2007b).
A History of Drugs: Drugs and Freedom in the Liberal Age by Toby Seddon